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(https://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you mustinclude the entire legal notice at bottom.Contributors:Dana Bisignani, Allen Brizee.Summary:This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.Annotated BibliographiesDefinitionsA bibliographyis a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has usedfor researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called ?References? or?Works Cited?depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes thebibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliographyincludes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources. Depending on your project orthe assignment, your annotations may do one or more of the following.Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the mainarguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? Ifsomeone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of yourannotations will determine how detailed your summary is.For more help, see our handout on paraphrasingsources.Assess: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a usefulsource? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is theinformation reliable? Is this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?For more help, see our handouts on evaluating resources.Reflect: Once you?ve summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fitsinto your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape yourargument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed howyou think about your topic?Your annotated bibliography may include some of these, all of these, or even others. If you?redoing this for a class, you should get specific guidelines from your instructor.Purdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/614/1 of 6 8/23/2014 10:58 PMWhy should I write an annotated bibliography?To learn about your topic: Writing an annotated bibliography is excellent preparation for aresearch project. Just collecting sources for a bibliography is useful, but when you have towrite annotations for each source, you?re forced to read each source more carefully. You beginto read more critically instead of just collecting information. At the professionallevel,annotated bibliographies allow you to see what has been done in the literature and where yourown research or scholarship can fit. To help you formulate a thesis: Every good researchpaper is an argument. The purpose of research is to state and support a thesis. So a veryimportant part of research is developing a thesis that is debatable, interesting, and current.Writing an annotated bibliography can help you gain a good perspective on what is being saidabout your topic. By reading and responding to a variety of sources on a topic, you?ll start tosee what the issues are, what people are arguing about, and you?ll then be able to develop yourown point of view.To help other researchers: Extensive and scholarly annotated bibliographies are sometimespublished. They provide a comprehensive overview of everything important that has been andis being said about that topic. You may not ever get your annotated bibliography published,but as a researcher, you might want to look for one that has been published about your topic.FormatThe format of an annotated bibliography can vary, so if you?re doing one for a class, it?simportant to ask for specific guidelines.The bibliographic information: Generally, though, the bibliographic information of thesource (the title, author, publisher, date, etc.) is written in either MLA or APA format. Formore help with formatting, see our MLA handout. For APA, go here: APA handout.The annotations:The annotations for each source are written in paragraph form. The lengthsof the annotations can vary significantly from a couple of sentences to a couple of pages. Thelength will depend on the purpose. If you?re just writing summaries of your sources, theannotations may not be very long. However, if you are writing an extensive analysis of eachsource, you?ll need more space.You can focus your annotations for your own needs. A few sentences of general summaryfollowed by several sentences of how you can fit the work into your larger paper or projectcan serve you well when you go to draft.Contributors:Dana Bisignani, Allen Brizee.Summary:This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.Annotated Bibliography ExampleElizabeth ThompsonPurdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/614/2 of 6 8/23/2014 10:58 PMProfessor StacksEnglish 10220 August 2001Stem Cell Research: An Annotated BibliographyHolland, Suzanne. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and PublicPolicy. Boston: MIT Press, 2001. Print.This is the annotation of the above source, which is formatted according to MLA 2009 (7thed.) guidelines for the bibliographic information listed above. If one were really writing anannotation for this source, one would offer a brief summary of what this book says about stemcell research.After a brief summary, it would be appropriate to assess this source and offer some criticismsof it. Does it seem like a reliable and current source? Why? Is the research biased orobjective? Are the facts well documented? Who is the author? Is she qualified in this subject?Is this source scholarly, popular, some of both?The length of your annotation will depend on the assignment or on the purpose of yourannotated bibliography. After summarizing and assessing, you can now reflect on this source.How does it fit into your research? Is this a helpful resource? Too scholarly? Not scholarlyenough? Too general/specific? Since ?stem cell research? is a very broad topic, has this sourcehelped you to narrow your topic?Senior, K. ?Extending the Ethical Boundaries of Stem Cell Research.? Trends in MolecularMedicine7 (2001): 5-6. Print.Not all annotations have to be the same length. For example, this source is a very shortscholarly article. It may only take a sentence or two to summarize. Even if you are using abook, you should only focus on the sections that relate to your topic.Not all annotated bibliographies assess and reflect; some merely summarize. That may not bethe most helpful for you, but, if this is an assignment, you should always ask your instructorfor specific guidelines.Wallace, Kelly. ?Bush Stands Pat on Stem Cell Policy.? CNN. 13 August 2001. 17 August2001. Television.Using a variety of sources can help give you a broader picture of what is being said aboutyour topic. You may want to investigate how scholarly sources are treating this topicdifferently than more popular sources. But again, if your assignment is to only use scholarlysources, then you will probably want to avoid magazines and popular web sites.The bibliographic information above is proper MLA format (use whatever style is appropriatein your field) and the annotations are in paragraph form. Note also that the entries arealphabetized by the first word in the bibliographic entry. If you are writing an annotatedPurdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/614/3 of 6 8/23/2014 10:58 PMbibliography with many sources, it may be helpful to divide the sources into categories. Forexample, if putting together an extensive annotated bibliography for stem cell research, itmight be best to divide the sources into categories such as ethical concerns, scholarlyanalyses, and political ramifications.For more examples, a quick search at a library or even on the Internet should produce severalexamples of annotated bibliographies in your area.Contributors:Dana Bisignani, Allen Brizee.Summary:This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.Annotated Bibliography SamplesOverviewFor a sample of an entry from an annotated bibliography entry in PDF, click on thedownloadable file in the media box above.Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a differentresearch project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography shouldreflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography,some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some mayreflect on the source?s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may addressallthree of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or yourinstructor?s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must beindented so that the author?s last name is the only text that is flush left.Sample MLA AnnotationLamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. New York: AnchorBooks, 1995. Print.Lamott?s book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete withits insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being awriter, the chapters in Lamott?s book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice oneverything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to strugglingwith one?s own internal critic. In the process, Lamott includes writing exercisesdesigned to be both productive and fun.Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, buther main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing,publishing, and struggling with one?s own imperfect humanity in the process.Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text isPurdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/614/4 of 6 8/23/2014 10:58 PMindispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and itsencouraging approach.Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class.Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve togenerate Discuss (check midcourse.net for the help you need)ion on students? own drafting and revising processes. Some of thewriting exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writingexercises. Students should find Lamott?s style both engaging and enjoyable.In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, anevaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research,respectively.For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 2009 Formatting and StyleGuide.Sample APA AnnotationEhrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: HenryHolt and Company.In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist?s experiential research,Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individualto live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in acleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes andreflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financialstruggles in each situation.An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of herexperiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tacticsandreflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methodsand supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places ofemployment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich?sproject is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The firstparagraph provides a brief summary of the author?s project in the book, covering the mainpoints of the work. The second paragraph points out the project?s strengths and evaluates itsmethods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source?s potentialimportance or usefulness for this person?s own research.For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide.Sample Chicago Manual Style AnnotationDavidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess. London: Routledge, 1998.Davidson?s book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by thenumerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including theirroles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death.Purdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/614/5 of 6 8/23/2014 10:58 PMThe author Discuss (check midcourse.net for the help you need)es relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol andritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and whitephotographs of relevant artifacts.This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concisedescription of the project and the book?s project and its major features.Our CMS Formatting and Style Guide is forthcoming. For information on formatting ChicagoStyle citations, click here.Purdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/614/6 of 6 8/23/2014 10:58 PMPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT Category: Essay Writing

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