philosophical arguments for and against K-12 School Education and service Learning.

philosophical arguments for and against K-12 School Education and service Learning.Paper instructions:Based on the required readings and your personal experiences, please present the underlying philosophical arguments for and against K-12 School Education andService Learning. You are welcome to incorporate your personal experiences of service learning in developing your arguments for and against service. In other words,you can attend to the critical components for effectively and successfully designing and implementing the service learning.LEARNING COMMUNITIES WORKING TOGETHER FOR THE SUCCESS OF ALL STUDENTS: A SHARED VISIONDan Ezell University of Central Florida-Brevard Campus Colleen Klein University of Central Florida ? Brevard Campus Theresa Lee Enterprise Elementary SchoolAbstractThis article focuses on the true spirit of school partnerships and showcases specific elements of a Professional Development School (PDS) and a university. Benefitsexperienced as a result of the partnership are highlighted. It is extremely important to develop a partnership that allows each party to learn from each other withmutual respect. The ultimate result of the partnership is that everyone involved works together and shares the vision of successfully educating all students, includingstudents with disabilities.?The power to reinvent teaching and schooling is located in neither the university nor the school, but in the collaborative work of the two.? Cochran-Smith (1991)Dr. Cochran-Smith?s words encapsulate the spirit of true school partnerships. Universities must not be viewed as the experts with a correction plan for schoolimprovement. The partnership among a public school, a university, and a community should be one that is nurtured with mutual respect. Each party, public school,university, and community should value the partnership as equal contributors to the overall goal of meeting the needs of all children, including children withdisabilities. When schools, universities, and communities unite with a shared vision, teaching and learning will be more effective for all involved. We will share onesuch partnership?the coming together of an elementary school, a university, and a local community resource center that was guided by the goals of the HolmesPartnership network to create a Professional Development School (PDS). The partners in this particular PDS relationship are the University of Central Florida (UCF),Orlando Science Center (OSC), Enterprise Elementary School, and the Holmes Partnership. The University of Central Florida is a major metropolitan research universitywhose main campus is located in Orlando with area campuses located in the central Florida region. The Orlando Science Center is a ?hands-on? learning center withhundreds of interactive activities for all ages. This great community resource provides educators with opportunities for professional growth and promotes andencourages interactive, inquiry-based science learning. Enterprise Elementary School, located in Port St. John approximately 10 miles west of the Kennedy Space Center,is one of 20 original Inclusion Models in the State of Florida and is currently in its eighth year of operation. Through the Holmes Partnership PDS model, these threepartners, University of Central Florida, Orlando Science Center, and Enterprise Elementary School, create a collaborative framework for sharing information. In orderto stay abreast with current pedagogy, instructional leaders need to take advantage of all available resources. A valuable resource that should be considered is thedevelopment of an intense relationship among public schools, colleges of education, and community resources. This type of partnership holds wonderful professionaldevelopment opportunities for the classroom teacher and also provides an important opportunity for university faculty to stay knowledgeable with current practices inthe public schools. It is extremely important to develop a partnership that allows for each party to learn from each other. We will share with you specific elements ofour partnership, which will highlight the benefits experienced. Elements of the Partnership There are many elements to our partnership. University courses are offeredon-site at the Enterprise Elementary school campus. Enterprise teachers are involved in the teaching of these on-site courses that enhance their professionaldevelopment in the field. Each on-site course involves a 20-hour practicum wherein university students are strategically placed in the elementary classrooms, assistingteachers with individual or small group instruction, assessment, and/or classroom management. The first-hand knowledge practicum students gain by being involved inclassroom interactions also helps students to move from theory (book learning) to practice (application to real-world settings). During the spring semester, a highconcentration of both elementary and exceptional education university interns are placed at Enterprise. University interns and practicum students truly benefit fromthe exposure of numerous activities and school improvement programs at Enterprise. Seeing first hand teachers? modeling collaboration and teamwork provides theuniversity students with examples to emulate. Enterprise teachers have professional development opportunities available as well, such as implementing action researchgrants, and attending professional conferences and workshops. University Courses Offered On-Site During the university students? junior year, three undergraduateeducation courses are taught on site at Enterprise Elementary?two courses for exceptional education majors and one course for elementary education majors. One of thetwo exceptional education courses is offered in the fall semester followed by the other course in the spring, along with the elementary education course. Each courseis carefully designed to take advantage of all available learning experiences offered at Enterprise Elementary. The most powerful element of the partnership isteaching university courses on-site at the elementary campus. At the heart of our partnership is the sharing of information from one party to the other; teachinguniversity courses on-site affords us this opportunity. Whatthe university faculty learns from the partnership is incorporated into the university course competencies for the pre-service teachers to use in the future.Conversely, what classroom teachers learn can be immediately implemented in their classrooms. Enterprise teachers share practical strategies as well as successes andfrustrations of teaching in an inclusive setting with the undergraduate students. In turn, the university students are given the opportunity to share currentresearch-based strategies and methods that can be utilized in inclusive classrooms. In one of the exceptional education courses, EEX 3241: Methods for Academic Skillsfor Exceptional Students, university students are assigned mentor teachers at Enterprise and are required to complete practicum hours each week. This course isdesigned to prepare exceptional education majors to teach exceptional students at the elementary level. Through such activities as class discussion, cooperativelearning activities, and mastery of course competencies, university students learn how to use student data in order to develop and incorporate effective teachingmethods and/or strategies. Some topics covered in this course are effective questioning techniques, direct instruction, lesson plan development, and selection andmodification of classroom materials. For course assignments, the university students develop many classroom materials for their assigned elementary classrooms,including interactive bulletin boards, file folder games, and other teacher-made projects. Because the course is offered on site at Enterprise, university students canimmediately utilize their created materials in their practicum settings. One university student noted, ?I liked actually working with children and applying the bookknowledge to the real classroom.? Another university student expressed, ?I feel that this gave us a down-to-earth experience of what goes on in an inclusive setting.?An additional benefit of the practicum requirements is reflected in another university student?s comment, ?Classes at Enterprise Elementary provided us with a smoothertransition to student teaching.? Another important issue covered in this course is inclusion. University students get to see first hand teachers collaborativelyworking together to teach all students. Upon reflecting on her experience at a full inclusion school, one student shared, ?How refreshing it was to learn aboutinclusive classrooms . . . it proved that the concept is not just a theory?it works!? Due to the strategically planned time of the course (1:30-4:30 p.m.), theEnterprise faculty members contribute to teaching the course by guest lecturing at the end of their school day. In preparing for these classroom-teacher-lectures,teachers are practicing being a reflective practitioner. The reflective process is highly valued as an instructional improvement strategy and teaching others abouttheir own teaching is an excellent means to practice reflection. One teacher reflected that her experience of working with the university students, ?. . . gives me thechance to share my knowledge to make stronger teachers, the opportunity to improve my teaching, and the chance to promote a quality education for future students asthese teachers prepare to have their own classrooms.? The following semester, we enhance our participation with the university students in the EEX 3221: ExceptionalEducation Assessment course. This course focuses on formal and informal assessment techniques for referral and placement, program planning and evaluation, andmonitoring the progress of exceptional students. Students learn how to use student data to determine the best assessment strategies for making decisions in theclassroom setting. The university students are again assigned a mentor teacher to work with on a weekly basis, this time focusing on classroom assessment procedures.Teachers welcome university students into their classrooms to observe their testing and assessment techniques. The university students also have an opportunity todevelop a child case study on a particular child in the classroom. One university student expressed, ?It was such a good experience to test kids and work with realsubjects.? Teachers also contribute to the lectures of the assessment course on such topics as multiple intelligences, informal classroom assessment,and working with at-risk children in an inclusive setting. The sharing of assessment issues helps increase awareness of non-discriminatory assessment procedures forindividuals with disabilities?a desired outcome across the educational community. The elementary education majors are enrolled in EEX 4003: Teaching ExceptionalStudents, a mainstreaming course that focuses on accommodations and modifications for children with disabilities in the inclusive setting. In this course, elementaryeducation majors develop and practice effective teaching and management strategies to use when working with students with mild disabilities, exceptional needs, andat-risk in mainstream and inclusive settings. What better environment to teach such a course than an inclusive school? University students have the opportunity topractice various accommodation projects within their practicum hours as part of their course requirements. The elementary majors gain first-handknowledge of teachingindividuals with disabilities. One elementary major expressed, ?I do not feel intimidated by exceptional students.? Another student shared, ?This was one of the bestexperiences of my academic career?I have never worked with such amazing children before!? ?All of our students are different and this class helped us prepare for thosedifferences,? noted another university student. The university students are also required to interview Enterprise teachers on their perceptions of inclusion. Thevaluable information gained from all of these experiences can help them later in their teaching career and can ultimately result in producing general educationteachers who are more sensitive to the needs of individuals with disabilities. ?I learned how to teach all students with effective strategies,? noted anotheruniversity student. Another student shared, ?I look at education differently and if I become a teacher in an inclusion school, I will feel more comfortable and willingto work with a team teacher.? Teaching courses on-site allows for professional growth of university students, classroom teachers and university faculty. By allowingthe university students to implement course assignments and projects in their classrooms, the classroom teachers are being introduced to current content andinstructional strategies taught at the university. Since assignments are discussed with the classroom teachers prior to implementation, the university students gaininsight from experienced teachers in the field who can help enhance their assignment or project. In sharing her thoughts, one teacher expressed, ?I am directlyaffecting children of the future by the foundation that I am offering these university students.? University students are able to take information from the courselectures and teachers in the field and combine it to create learning for the elementary children. A prime example of university students sharing current strategies isdescribed by one of the Enterprise teachers. The teacher had been working with a fifth grader who had been struggling with multiplication. After many attempts, she wasnot making any headway with the student. One of the university students asked to help. The university student incorporated a game and was successful! The teacher notedthat the fifth grader still does not have all of his multiplication facts memorized, but he knows how to find the answers. Teaching courses on-site also allows theuniversity courses to move from theory to practice. The university faculty benefits by maintaining a connection with current classroom practices which can beincorporated into course content and assignments. Everything from children laughing in the halls, to alarms sounding for fire drills, to school bells ringing toindicate the end of the day helps set the tone for the content being learned in the courses. The authentic setting provides the optimal learning environment for pre-service teacher training. It is a win/win situation for all parties involved in the learning process. Practicum Experiences Each university course taught on-site atEnterprise has required practicum hours in the classroom setting. One of the exceptional education teachers assists the university faculty inselecting practicum sites at the school for the university students, which is important since she understands the needs of the school and the special needs population.Teachers are able to plan specific activities and responsibilities for the practicum students ahead of time since the practicum experience is scheduled at the sametime each week. The university practicum students can provide teachers additional assistance in developing and implementing informal assessment procedures and offerone-to-one assistance to children who need additional instruction. Everyone involved in the partnership collaborates, shares, and learns from each other. OneEnterprise teacher conveys this message nicely when she stated, ?My students are blessed when we have a practicum student as they receive extra attention and moreindividualized instruction. The practicum students have the opportunity to have hands-on experiences with the students and get a feel for daily instructionalprocedures and classroom routines. I, in turn, learn new techniques and methods from the practicum students as we collaboratively plan the implementation of theirrequired projects for their university courses.? One student summed up her experiences by saying, ?We had wonderful opportunities to directly apply our knowledge andput it into practical use. We had the chance to work directly with students and that is when true learning and teaching can take place.? Internship The partnershipalso allows for a high concentration of student interns to be placed at Enterprise Elementary, ranging from 10 to 14 in one semester. Both elementary education andexceptional education majors are given the opportunity to choose Enterprise Elementary for their senior internship, which lends itself for an ideal collaborativeexperience. University students hoping to intern at Enterprise complete a separate application form which includes completing additional information concerningperceptions on inclusion and reasons for wanting to intern at Enterprise. A committee consisting of university faculty members and Enterprise faculty and staff reviewthe applications and make the final decisions. For internship at Enterprise, teaching situations are arranged so both the elementary education and exceptionaleducation student interns have experiences with co-teaching, developing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) for children identified as having a disability, workingwith science fair projects and competitions, working with the guidance counselor on the referral process, meeting with child study teams, and many other worthwhileexperiences. This internship arrangement has valuable outcomes for the elementary and exceptional education majors. The elementary education majors receive first-handexperiences of implementing instructional strategies to accommodate children who are academically at-risk or who have disabilities. They also have the opportunity toenhance their understanding of various disabilities and characteristics they may not have otherwise had if they were not interning in an inclusive school environment.The exceptional education majors have numerous opportunities to work collaboratively with general education teachers to enhance their communication and collaborationskills. The exceptional education majors also have the opportunity to enhance basic subject matter knowledge and competencies they possibly would not have been able todo had they not been interning in an inclusive school environment. These experiences will help prepare the student interns for the ?real world? experiences they willencounter in their first years in the field. A current elementary education intern expressed, ?The staff at Enterprise have welcomed me with open arms and I am able toexperience and use the techniques I have read about in my textbooks.? Another comment was shared by a current exceptional education intern, ?The internship setting atEnterprise is absolutely fabulous?the atmosphere creates a setting that is very conducive to growing as a learner, a teacher, and a person. I love it!?Having a large number of student interns within one semester at one school is also beneficial to teachers and children. Once the student interns become moreresponsible for instructional time, teachers have increased opportunities to meet with each other, plan, create learning experiences for the interns, and be moreinvolved in professional development opportunities. Having student teacher interns and practicum students in the classroom increases the opportunity for moreindividual and small group instruction that can ultimately impact children learning in a positive way. One teacher validated this by her comment, ?Having an internallowed me the time to sit and interact with a new student during the school day that I might not have had the time otherwise.? She further commented, ?The children inmy room know that these college interns are not only learning, but are teaching all of us, as I have a lot to learn as well.? The principal offers another opportunityto the university interns toward the end of their internship. The principal observes the interns in the classroom setting. When the principal observes the interns, theinterns are given feedback from a principal?s perspective, which mirrors real life in that principals evaluate teachers? job performances and effectiveness every year.Upon the interns? request, the principal will conduct ?mock interviews.? The mock interviews are designed to prepare the interns for possible questions and situationsthey may encounter during an actual interview. The principal offers practical suggestions and provides a ?safe environment? for the interns to practice theirinterviewing skills. The principal plays an important part in molding and training teachers for the future. Overall, university coordinators, classroom supervisingteachers, and the principal collaboratively work together to provide a safe environment that is conducive for the intern to grow professionally. As one teacherexpressed, ?Interns get the opportunity to try out new ideas without fear of embarrassment or ridicule.? Exposure to Activities and School Improvement ProgramsAdditional benefits of the partnership include the university students being exposed to a variety of school-based activities, innovative school improvement programs,and an inclusive environment. The university students have a wide variety of school-wide activities from which to gain knowledge: student-operated video production labactivities, foreign language instruction, science fairs, book fairs, field trips, and family literary night activities. Enterprise Elementary has several NationallyBoard Certified teachers with additional teachers working toward certification every year. Nationally Board Certified teachers and teachers who are currently in theprocess of being certified nationally, share much by way of modeling collaborative professional growth. University students observe first hand, how teachers who havefinished the process, support those who are working toward certification. University students also have the opportunity to observe the implementation of Dr. WilliamGlasser?s Quality School Training Program at Enterprise. The Quality Schools initiative was designed to provide schools with a systematic approach to understanding andimplementing quality education for all children. University students observe various techniques and strategies used by Enterprise teachers implementing Glasser?sprogram. University students also gain insight into the framework of inclusive education. Since Enterprise Elementary is a full inclusion school, all of theexceptional education children are served in the regular classroom. University students observe exceptional education teachers providing support within the regularclassroom setting by using such instructional methods as co-teaching, small group instruction, direct instruction, and consultation. They get to see teamwork beingenhanced at Enterprise with teachers being involved in vertical teaming and grade level teaming and witness the benefits of such collaborative practices. Verticalteams at Enterprise are used to enhance communication and collaboration across the grade levels and students are encouraged to work cooperatively in teams, helpingeach other. University students are shown how procedures such as vertical teaming and grade level teaming com-plement each other and can provide pertinent information to teachers that can help them better meet the needs of their students. One university student felt herexperience of being involved at an inclusive school was extremely rewarding, ?Working with the teachers at Enterprise encouraged and challenged me to keep an opennessconcerning inclusion. The team work portrayed to meet the needs of all students made me realize that an inclusion school is important in the field of education.? Allof the school-wide activities, school improvement programs, and inclusive school structure provide a dynamic, community-connected atmosphere. Professional DevelopmentOpportunities An added benefit of the partnership is the opportunity for collaboration in classroombased research. The university provides grant monies for classroomteachers at professional development schools to be used for integrated classroom projects. Teachers are encouraged to develop action research proposals that aredesigned to evaluate instructional effectiveness. These projects provide an excellent way to stay current with what is effective in terms of student learning. Theuniversity site coordinator collaborates with the teachers and reviews proposals, providing them with support before submission to the university. After grants areawarded and implemented, teachers are required to present their results at a symposium designed for all of the PDS partners in the UCF/OSC Holmes Partnership. Thesharing among schools allows for professional development that could ultimately increase teachers? instructional effectiveness. In addition, the university sponsorsin-service training and professional development opportunities to teachers on various topics. One of the in-service trainings offered focused on conducting actionresearch by the classroom teacher. The training was held at the Orlando Science Center and teachers benefited not only from the training on action research, but alsofrom learning more about the opportunities available at the center. Another professional development opportunity was secured by a grant from the university thatprovided conference registration and stipends for teachers who participated. The conference addressed specific teaching methods and strategies to use with students whohave cognitive and/or developmental disabilities. The university and Enterprise Elementary also explore innovative projects together. One jointly planned innovativepilot project was offered by a grant to develop electronic portfolios for the teachers to showcase their students? best work. Children?s work samples and reflectionswere available on-line. Developing informal relationships between university faculty and classroom teachers is another valued asset of the partnership?levels of trustare established. Because the university faculty members teach college courses on-site and are involved in collaborative projects, it provides an additional universitypresence and an opportunity to establish informal relationships. Many classroom problem-solving activities are discussed in informal, yet important meetings, whichfosters a relaxed dialogue between both parties. Teachers have expressed how much they appreciate the freedom of asking for help without the risk of lookingincompetent. University faculty members also experience the liberty of asking for teacher input in improving their course competencies. All of the professionaldevelopment opportunities offered enhanced the cohesiveness of and collegiality of the partnership. Conclusions-Final Thoughts One of the six goals adopted by theHolmes Partnership in 1990 was the concept of simultaneous renewal of public K-12 schools and teacher training programs (Holmes Group, 1990). We feel this goal hashelped us guide the philosophy of our partnership. We feel it isimportant to have renewal simultaneously in order to create the best learning environments for all children. We must not work separately to attempt to accomplish thistask. The partnership should be viewed as a joint effort with both the public school and university personnel working together to reach optimal results for studentlearning. In essence, it should be viewed as a ?learning community? where children, teachers, and university faculty have the opportunity to learn from each other.From the principal?s perspective, the elementary students receive the benefit of ?more hands? and more direct instruction from the teaching and tutoring that is goingon as a result of the partnership. It also provides the staff with the opportunity for professional growth through their experiences as adjuncts and guest lecturers.It gives the principal great pleasure to see the Enterprise teachers grow and blossom both professionally and personally from these experiences. Looking back on ouryears of nurturing this partnership, we have gained much knowledge and have experienced the true value of reflection. ?It is important to start out slowly and allowtime to adjust and get to know the needs of each party? (Ezell & Klein, 2001, p. 57). It is important to realize that every idea does not have to be implemented all atonce. One lesson that we have learned is the need to continue to nurture the partnership because ?as each entity in the partnership grows, new opportunities becomeavailable for the partnership that can enhance the productivity of the relationship? (p. 57). The partnership works because of the collaboration between Enterprise andthe university and the commitment on both sides to provide the best education for all students, young and old. Overall, when everyone involved in the learningcommunity has a common goal to create optimal learning environments for children, everyone benefits from the shared vision. Looking out from the Enterprise principal?scorner office windows to the open quad, one can observe the gathering and interaction of diverse groups from elementary children and their teachers and parents,university students and faculty, to community volunteers?a true depiction of a nurtured partnership. ReferencesCochran-Smith, M. (1991). Reinventing student teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 104-118. Ezell, D., & Klein, C. (2001). Nurture the partnership.Pennsylvania Educational Leadership, 29(2), 57-58. Holmes Group. (1990). Tomorrow?s schools. East Lansing, MI: Holmes Group.Copyright of National Forum of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal is the property of National Forum Journals and its content may not be copied or emailedto multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder?s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles forindividual use.Theory Into Practice, 48:106?113, 2009 Copyright ? The College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University ISSN: 0040-5841 print/1543-0421 online DOI:10.1080/00405840902776327Anne Gregory Dewey Cornell??Tolerating?? Adolescent Needs: Moving Beyond Zero Tolerance Policies in High SchoolThe authors contend that zero tolerance discipline policies are inconsistent with adolescent developmental needs for authoritative, as distinguished fromauthoritarian, discipline. Previous research has applied the notion of authoritative parenting to teaching styles in classrooms, and a similar model of authoritativediscipline can guide schoolwide discipline policies and practices (Gregory & Weinstein, 2004; Walker, 2008; Wentzel, 2002). Schoolwide authoritative disciplinecombines high levels of both structure and support. The authors conceptualize school structure as adequate supervision of students andAnne Gregory is an assistant professor and Dewey Cornell is a professor, both at the Curry Programs in School and Clinical Psychology at the University of Virginia.Correspondence should be addressed to Anne Gregory, Curry Programs in School and Clinical Psychology, 147 Ruffner Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA22903. E-mail: [email protected] educonsistent and fair enforcement of school rules. They conceptualize school support as the availability of positive adult?student relationships, help for strugglingstudents, and programs to address students? nonacademic needs. With its ?rm but fair and supportive approach, authoritative discipline can create a safe and securelearning environment conducive to student engagement and achievement.ZERO TOLERANCE IS THE MOST popular and widespread discipline reform effort in American schools today. Virtually every public school in the United States is mandated byfederal law to use a zero tolerance approach for ?rearms violations (Gun Free Schools Act of 1994) and many apply a similar approach to other weapons, illegal drugs,over-thecounter medications, and other prohibited behaviors (APA Zero Tolerance Task Force, 2006).106Gregory and CornellTolerating Adolescent NeedsDespite its widespread use, zero tolerance is highly controversial. This article examines zero tolerance from a developmental perspective and proposes an alternativedisciplinary approach that is more consistent with adolescent needs for structure and support that facilitate rather than con?ict with their emerging independence andautonomy. Advocates of zero tolerance claim that it prevents school violence by removing dangerous students immediately after an infraction and, simultaneously,sending a strong deterrent message to other students. Th

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